Monday, April 8, 2019
Reading Aloud Essay Example for Free
Reading Aloud Essay1. 0 Introduction More than half of our lives at once concern about workplace ability. Through cultivation people ar being introduce to value and knowledge. People usually sympathize to get a job, as a hobby or to meet their dream. Reading always intertwine with literacy and the experiences that peerless felt via interlingual rendition often different with each other. una bid people incur different understanding on text read. Reading materials nooky be magazines, newspapers, books, query articles, journals and other written form of texts.As long as people shadow write at that place depart be always a text to read. Moreover, one academic skill that is especially beta for schoolhouse succeeder is training proficiency (Bernhardt, 2005). For children to succeed academically it is essential that they develop the foundational teaching skills that pass on allow them to obtain knowledge fluidly done text and increased opportunities for encyclope dism (Joseph, 2006). Thus, interpret proficiency is a fundamental skill which provide dish out students to engage with new input or knowledge.However not all proficient readers have the ability to read fluently. According to Hudson (2009), version proficiency constitutes of breeding for suaveness and instruction for comprehension reading for smoothness deals with the absolute reading behavior which deals with reading with dress pronunciation. Whereas reading for comprehension deals with reading for understanding a text. Reading fluency is the some important component in reading skills and the numbers of students who corporation acquire a good reading fluency is not ample (Schatschneider, 2006). nearly political platform in schools assumes that all students are literate and they can accumulate knowledge via reading (Rasinski Hoffman, 2003). However not all readers can read a pass fluently even though they can track the passage well (Baker, Smolkowski, Katz, Fien, See ley, Kameenui, et al. , 2008). Hence, for years reading fluency was the forgotten stepchild of the reading curriculum because teachers and reading scholars were more interested in moving students as quickly as possible into dense reading, not the level of expressiveness in spoken reading (Rasinski et al., 2008).Profoundly according to Elena Lilles et al. (2008) if students struggle with reading fluency, they will consequently struggle with other academic areas. Serious reading fluency problems in school limits success in most academic tasks and promote academic exclusion from intellectually rewarding and challenging educational opportunities (Entwisle, Alexander Olson, 2004). Ellen, Ramp, Anderson Martin, (2007) ask if students cap open of comprehending a passage, will they also capable to read the same passage with clear pronunciation?They also explain that if the students can achieve a good level in comprehending a text in position, it does not guarantee that the students ca n acquire an efficient level in oral reading. As a consequence, students will face problems in using side linguistic process by word of mouth as medium of communicative phrase in society. However, students who are assay to read can be helped through monitoring their oral reading fluency through a suitable reading improvement (Schatschneider, 2006). Daly III, Chafouleas Sk cozy, (2005) has come out with several reading address.There are 1)reading out loud, where the students collect to read forte a passage abandoned several age before being evaluate by teachers, 2) phrase apply error correction, where the error words are being repeated until the students acquire the phonic salubrious, 3) performance feedback, where the students hold to give feedback on passage that they have read. 4) Listening while reading, where the students need to read the passage forte in the class and the students who are listening will learn how to pronounce certain words.5) Folding in flashcard instruction, where the students learn to pronounce a word through flash cards. In conclusion, students should be able to acquire reading proficiency both in fluency and comprehending a reading text. The consequences of lack in reading proficiency could affect their academic performance. As solution reading habits should be implement in school. Students should practice reading in order to prevent them from being a struggle readers. Students who can comprehend a reading text does not mean that they can read the text fluently with correct pronunciation.Reading problem especially in reading fluency can be improved through catch intervention which seem to be suitable with the students. Thus, students weaknesses in reading a text should be identified in order to enhance their reading proficiency especially in reading fluency 1. 1 Background of the study Malaysia is characterised by a multilingual society where its race is made up of people who come from various ethnic and linguistic ba ckgrounds (Harison, 2010). Thus, Malaysia has different var. of races that use different kind of languages.Malay students will use Malay language to communicate, the Indian students will use Tamil language and the Chinese students will use Mandarin language. Most of the time they will read books that related to their languages because of the need to enhance their reading on their mother tongue (Abdul Rashid, Chew Muhammad Kamarul, 2006). Hence, due to this matter, reading in English might being neglected or being less focused in school. When teacher conducting an oral test to our students, the interference of their mother tongue occurs and that made our students become a struggle reader (Siti Norliana, Roszainora Muthusamy, 2009).Most of the reading activities in Malayan Secondary Schools focus on understanding a comprehension text which afterward the knowledge that they comprehend will be used to answer the questions given (KBSM, 2001). Therefore, utility(prenominal) students reading skills was not optimally being explored. Teachers will ask several students to read out loud and most of the time will be silent reading. Indeed, the students only built their knowledge but they cannot read fluently which most of them having problem related to reading fluency (Siti Norliana, Roszainora Muthusamy, 2009).In order to fancy a solution for the reading problem related to reading fluency, a precise study on how can we help our Malaysian twinklingary students become a fluent reader is important to carry out. Reading fluency alike has been mention above focused on students speed of accurate reading (Hudson et al. , 2005). Thus, this research focused on how we can help struggle readers to enhance their reading fluency. This study used reading aloud onrush where the students need to read passage given orally. Reading passages were chosen from the Malaysian atomic number 16ary English standard as the reading materials.CBM was used to measure the accurate readin g or the percentages of correct word read during the reading sessions. Accurate reading focuses on 1) words pronounce correctly, 2) words read incorrectly which lie errors of mispronunciations, substitutions, and omissions, 3) 3 second rule which the words will be counted as an error when the teacher help the students to pronounce it after they flutter in pronouncing the words for three seconds. Exactly as the guidelines provided by Daly III, Chafouleas Skinner, (2005, p. 78).Thus, the conduct of this research sought to reveal on how far the reading will aloud begin can improve Malaysian secondary students reading fluency. 1. 2 Problem statement Models of World Englishes has been coined by professor Braj B. Kachru on 1985 (Phillipson, 2008). This mannikin explains how English widely spread and used worldwide. According to Kachru, B. B. , Kachru, Y. , Nelson, C. L. , (2006), there are three circle models which can classify English as native language (ENL), English as a secon d language (ESL), and English as overseas language (EFL).The three circles model are The flow rate sociolinguistic profile of English may be viewed in terms of three concentric circles . . . The inner traffic circle refers to traditional cultural and linguistic bases of English. The Outer Circle represents the institutionalised non- native varieties (ESL) in regions that have passed through extended periods of colonization . . . The Expanding Circle includes the regions where the performance varieties of the languages are used essentially in EFL contexts. (Kachru, B. B. , Kachru, Y. , Nelson, C. L. , 2006).Concisely, this model explains about three circles which roughly classify three different English learners worldwide. 1) The Inner Circle houses countries, like the United States, United great powerdom, Australia and so on, where English is traditionally the primary or native language (English as Native Language). 2) The Outer Circle comprises countries where English has a lo ng history of institutionalized functions, usually owe to a colonial past, and is used intra-nationally among fellow citizens who are usually bilingual (English as Second Language).Finally, 3) The Expanding Circle consists of countries in which English has no special posture, but may be taught as a foreign language (English as Foreign Language) (Rajadurai, 2010). Applied to Malaysia, our country has traditionally been assigned Outer Circle status due to the British colonization. (David Govindasamy 2003). Rajah stated that the independence of Malaya in 1957, however, saw a continuing win over in attitude towards the English language, in favor of the Malay language. English continued to be a dominant language.(as cited in Lee Su Kim, Lee King Siong, Wong Azizah, 2010). Competence in English had become a crucial partition in Malaysian society after the independence, carving out for itself a use in the economical areas, in education and placing the society status or standard among Malaysian. (Lee Su Kim, Lee King Siong, Wong Azizah, 2010). In the Malaysian school context, where English is officially stated and taught as a second language, discipline English as a second language (ESL) in class always poses many language and cultural obstacles (Melor et al,.2012).Thus, there is a widespread concern among educators about students who not having the ability to read or students who is struggling to read in English (Zulhilmi, 2005). In News Straits Times newspaper date on 12th February 2006 reported a survey conducted by the National Union of the Teaching duty (NUTP) on students ability to read in English among secondary schools students in Malaysia. From the 70 secondary schools population of 73,858 students were analyzed, and from the analysis there are 34,890 students who could not read in English.What is more shocking is that some of these students are in Form five and having had eleven years of schooling and learning English as a second language yet they r un downed to achieve the basic skills of reading in English. Thus, students reading ability in second language need to be developed so that they can become fluent readers. (Noorliza, 2006). In order for students to succeed in reading fluently the teacher need to focus on enhancing their reading fluency (Baker, 2008). Baker also claimed that acquiring fluency in reading can also be considered important because it is also a part of developing reading ability.One of the ways to help students in enhancing their reading fluency is through reading aloud approach. (Hale et al. , 2007). Thus, this research will show the insight of struggling readers enhancing their reading fluency through reading aloud approach. 1. 3 Rationale of the study Several models of reading development suggest that reading fluency is a one of the most important components of effective reading ( Kuhn Stahl, 2003). Normally, students who are struggling to read will take longer time to develop their reading fluency. c ollect to this subject matter using reading aloud strategy seem to be an effective and expedient way to help our struggling readers. (Compton, Fuchs, D. , Fuchs, L. S. , Bryant, 2006) Rasinski Padak (2008) claims that reading aloud approach should be an instructional routine in all classrooms, including those for student who experience difficulty in reading. Another advantage of reading aloud, especially for those who find reading difficult, is that it familiarizes students with the style and form of written language. It also provides students with a model of what fluent reading should sound like. (Goering Baker, 2010).Furthermore, Nurazila et al. , (2011) claim that the use of reading aloud approach is less being attempt to be examine by our Malaysian researchers. Indeed, they also stated that this reading approach strengths and weaknesses still need to be analyse deeper. So, the rationales of this study open up the chance to enhance students reading fluency using reading alou d approach. 1. 4 The Purpose and Objective of the study. The purpose of this study is to investigate the reading fluency development of our secondary school students using reading aloud approach. Henceforth, the objectives of this study are 1.To identify whether reading aloud approach can improve students reading fluency or not 2. To identify whether reading aloud approach has a positive influence on the subjects percentages of correct words read during the treatment was given. 3. To identify students park errors in their reading session. 1. 5 Research questions Thus, research questions of this study will be 1. To what extent does reading aloud approach improve students reading fluency? 2. To what extent does reading aloud approach influences the subjects percentages of correct words read in each reading sessions during the treatment was given?3. To what extent does students make errors in their reading sessions? 1. 6 Significance of the study 1. 6. 1. Society level At the society level, this study can help in developing number of peoples who can use English as a second language fluently which can cater jobs requirement as English is being used as second language in Malaysia. This study will also help the new generation apparel with proper level English proficiency that can help them face the globalization era which English is widely being used as universal language. 1. 6. 2. School level.This study will help school to improve their students reading abilities in order to gain better result in major examination in English subject. It is also will give an idea on how to save struggle readers in the schools. 1. 6. 3. Teacher At the pedagogical level, this study can assist the teachers in solving problems in reading fluency among the students. Students who are struggling readers could be helped through the approach used in this research which later could help teachers to easily conduct the lesson of the day without facing any problem in teaching and learning se ssion. 1. 6. 4. Students.This research might help the student in enhancing their reading proficiency. Students not only competent in reading to gain comprehension and knowledge but also can convey the knowledge fluently through oral reading using accurate pronunciation, intonation and reading rate. 1. 7 Limitation of the study 1. 7. 1. Time limitation In order to carry out this research, a consistent time vigilance should be taken care of. This study has to be conducted 4 times a week, for 5 weeks. So, a proper supervision of time is needed. However, in school the periodic timetable given and the schools programs will interrupt the suggested period of the research.1. 8 Definition of terms 1. 9. 1 Reading fluency Reading fluency is often defined as the ability to read rapidly with ease and accuracy and to read with appropriate expression and phrasing. (Grabe, 2008). In this study, reading fluency refers to accurately read the words in one import without making errors in the reading sessions. 1. 9. 2. 1 Accurate reading. According to Fletcher, Francis, Morris Lyon (2005) accurate reading is the ability to have sex word, how to sound a words which involve the process of pronouncing words correctly with the correct pronunciation.In this research, accurate reading refers to reading a passage accurately without making errors in reading. The errors consist of mispronunciation, substitutions and omission, and three second rules which the words will be counted as an error when the teacher help the students to pronounce it after they hesitate in pronouncing the words for three seconds. 1. 9. 2 Reading aloud approach Rasinski (2003) defined reading aloud as a process of sounding the words in written forms loudly with appropriate facial nerve expression, rhythm and use the correct punctuation marks in the texts read.In this study reading aloud means students need to read passage given orally in front of teacher. Teacher will assist the students through monitoring the students reading. Students will be given chances to read the passages repeatedly before the students win in reading were taken. 1. 9. 3 Curriculum Based Measurement Curriculum-based measurement (CBM) is a standardize initialise for assessing reading fluency in one minute time. (Daly III, Chafouleas Skinner, 2005). In this study, CBM refers to students reading progress in one minute.CBM will show the level of students reading fluency gain through reading treatment given for the students. 1. 9. 4 Struggling readers Struggling readers refers to students who fail to recognize words, fail to comprehend various types of text, have small-minded motivation to read and spend less time in reading. (Chard, Vaughn Tyler, 2002). In this research struggling readers refers to students who fail to pronounce a word with correct intonation using appropriate reading speed and students who can comprehend the texts but having difficulties in sounding the words in a text.